Legal pluralism

Land law reform issues in Mongolia: a law and society perspective

After the Soviet Union collapsed in the 1990s, Mongolia shifted from a socialist to capitalist economy. A new constitution was established in 1992 and reforms were instituted, including land law reforms.

A new land law enacted in 1994 excluded the application of private ownership over pastoral land and provided for three categories of land rights: ownership, possession (renewable leases between 15-60 years) and use for foreigners.

A bird that flies with two wings: Kastom and state justice systems in Vanuatu

Author/s (editor/s):

Forsyth, Miranda

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This book investigates the problems and possibilities of plural legal orders through an in-depth study of the relationship between the state and customary justice systems in Vanuatu. It argues that there is a need to move away from the current state-centric approach to law reform in the South Pacific region, and instead include all state and non-state legal orders in development strategies and dialogue. The book also presents a typology of models of engagement between state and non-state legal systems, and describes a process for analysing which of these models would be most advantageous for any country in the South Pacific region, and beyond.

Cite the publication as

Forsyth, Miranda, 2009. A bird that flies with two wings: Kastom and state justice systems in Vanuatu. Australia, Canberra: ANU ePress.

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