Misplaced and misused fear

This event is the third part of a four part series: Governance and the power of fear.

The relationship between fear and regulation is not well understood. Fear may be misplaced – think of our outsized fear of sharks, or it may be misused – as when fears of terrorism are used to justify curtailing civil liberties and invading privacy. This panel examines how fear has been misused and misplaced to justify either regulation or inaction.

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in Australian youth justice: A Western Australian prevalence study

The Telethon Kids Institute has conducted the first Australian study to examine the prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and other cognitive disorders at Banksia Hill Detention Centre – Western Australia’s only youth detention facility.

Are doctors different? Regulating individuals in the context of occupational subcultures

A basic principle of ‘responsive regulation’ is that regulators should respond to the behavior, context and culture of those being regulated. Yet scholars generally pay more attention to regulatory and regulated organisations than to the individuals being regulated. Health professionals, and doctors in particular, as a distinctively difficult group to regulate, call for considerable regulatory guile. In this seminar, Judith discusses efforts to persuade doctors to comply with protocols that aim to make health care safer for patients.

Global trends and patterns of commercial milk-based formula sales: is an unprecedented infant and young child feeding transition underway?

Author/s (editor/s):

Baker, P
Smith, J
Salmon, L
Friel, S
Kent, G
Iellamo, A
Dadhich, JP
Renfrew, MJ

Publication year:


Publication type:

Journal article

Find this publication at:


Objective: The marketing of infant/child milk-based formulas (MF) contributes to suboptimal breast-feeding and adversely affects child and maternal health outcomes globally. However, little is known about recent changes in MF markets. The present study describes contemporary trends and patterns of MF sales at the global, regional and country levels.

Design: Descriptive statistics of trends and patterns in MF sales volume per infant/child for the years 2008–2013 and projections to 2018, using industry-sourced data.

Setting: Eighty countries categorized by country income bracket, for developing countries by region, and in countries with the largest infant/child populations.

Subjects: MF categories included total (for ages 0–36 months), infant (0–6 months),follow-up (7–12 months), toddler (13–36 months) and special (0–6 months). Results: In 2008–2013 world total MF sales grew by 40·8% from 5·5 to 7·8 kg per infant/child/year, a figure predicted to increase to 10·8 kg by 2018. Growth was most rapid in East Asia particularly in China, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam and was led by the infant and follow-up formula categories. Sales volume per infant/ child was positively associated with country income level although with wide variability between countries.

Conclusions: A global infant and young child feeding (IYCF) transition towards diets higher in MF is underway and is expected to continue apace. The observed increase in MF sales raises serious concern for global child and maternal health, particularly in East Asia, and calls into question the efficacy of current regulatory regimes designed to protect and promote optimal IYCF. The observed changes have not been captured by existing IYCF monitoring systems.

Cite the publication as

Baker, P., Smith, J., Salmon, L., Friel, S., Kent, G., Iellamo, A., Dadhich, JP, Renfrew, M. J (2016) Global trends and patterns of commercial milk-based formula sales: is an unprecedented infant and young child feeding transition underway? Public Health Nutrition. 2016: 1-11. doi:10.1017/S1368980016001117

MCHP Seminar: an unprecedented global infant and young child feeding transition appears to be underway. What’s driving it? What can be done about it?

The United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition and the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Global Nutrition Targets recently committed governments to improving breastfeeding rates. This is given specific focus by the WHO’s Comprehensive Implementation Plan on Maternal and Child Nutrition which sets global targets for increasing exclusive breastfeeding of children under six months of age.

MCHP seminar: Universal health coverage in Australia and the 2016 Federal budget

This Menzies Centre for Health Policy presentation will consider the relations between Australia’s federal health system, Commonwealth financing for health, and national election campaign strategy.

Unhealthy commodity producers and health governance: policy implications of strategic and structural links across alcohol, tobacco and ultra-processed food manufacturers

The increased prominence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) within global health and development agendas is epitomised by their inclusion within the Sustainable Development Goals. Yet the terms of this inclusion highlight major tensions that undermine the efficacy and legitimacy of national and international health initiatives.


Updated:  10 August 2017/Responsible Officer:  Director, RegNet/Page Contact:  Director, RegNet