Transnational environmental crime (TEC), which includes crimes such as the illicit taking and trafficking of wildlife and timber, the dumping of toxic and hazardous waste, and the illegal trade in ozone-depleting substances, is a growing and seemingly intractable problem. There is no ‘one-size-fits-all’ solution to the complex phenomena that constitute TEC. Grabosky’s contributions to regulatory and criminological scholarship in three areas are of particular relevance. First, he significantly develops the notion that policing, as a form of regulation, is a pluralised and networked enterprise conducted not only by the state but also by commercial and community actors. Second, Grabosky sets out the means by which the state can enlist, and harness the capacities of, these ‘third parties’ to ‘co-produce’ security and obtain compliance (meta-regulation). And third, he unpacks the many risks of regulation, such as possible unintended and counter-productive consequences, and highlights the resulting need for careful design and oversight.
Julie Ayling (2018) ‘Meta-regulating transnational environmental crime for better outcomes’, in Lennon Chang and Russell Brewer (eds.) The Regulation of Crime, Policing and Security: Essays in Honour of Peter Grabosky, Routledge.
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