RegNet Research Paper Series Vol. 4, No. 4

Author/s (editor/s):

Baker, Phillip
Smith, Julie
Salmon, Libby
Friel, Sharon
Kent, George
Iellamo, Alessandro
Dadhich, JP
Renfrew, Mary J
van der Heijden, Jeroen
Marsavelski, Aleksandar
Sheremeti, Furtuna
Braithwaite, John

Publication year:


Publication type:

Working paper

RegNet Research Paper No. 2016/110

Global Trends and Patterns of Commercial Milk-Based Formula Sales: Is an Unprecedented Infant and Young Child Feeding Transition Underway?

Phillip Baker , Julie Smith, Libby Salmon, Sharon Friel, George Kent, Alessandro Iellamo, J P Dadhich and Mary J Renfrew, School of Regulation and Global Governance (RegNet), Australian National University

Objective: The marketing of infant/child milk-based formulas (MF) contributes to suboptimal breastfeeding and adversely affects child and maternal health outcomes globally. However, little is known about recent changes in MF markets. This study describes contemporary trends and patterns of MF sales at the global, regional and country levels. It further examines what social, economic and political factors are driving global sales growth and between-country variations in formula consumption. Design: Descriptive statistics of trends and patterns in MF sales volume per infant/child for the years 2008-2013 and projections to 2018, using industry-sourced data. Setting: 80 countries categorised by country income bracket, for developing countries by region, and in countries with largest infant/child populations. Subjects: MF categories included total (for ages 0-36 months), infant (0-6 months), follow-up (7-12 months), toddler (13-36 months), and special (0-6 months). Results: In 2008-2013 world total MF sales grew by 40.8% from 5.5 to 7.8kg per infant/child/year, a figure predicted to increase to 10.8kg by 2018. Growth was most rapid in East Asia particularly in China, Indonesia and Vietnam and was led by the infant and follow-up formula categories. Sales volume per infant/child was positively associated with country income level although with wide variability between countries. Conclusions: A global infant and young child feeding (IYCF) transition towards diets higher in MF is underway and is expected to continue apace. The observed increase in MF sales raises serious concern for global child and maternal health, particularly in East Asia, and calls into question the efficacy of current regulatory regimes designed to protect and promote optimal IYCF. Income growth, increasing female labour force participation, and urbanization are likely to be key factors driving increased formula demand. However, between country variations in formula sales are powerfully driven by differences in the adoption and effectiveness of maternity protection policies (e.g. paid maternity leave), and the regulation of commercial infant formula marketing.

RegNet Research Paper No. 2016/111

Eco-Financing for Lowcarbon Buildings and Cities: Value and Limits

Jeroen Van der Heijden, School of Regulation and Global Governance (RegNet), Australian National University

Building owners and governments face constraints in financing the transformation and development of low-carbon buildings and cities. Banks and other finance providers are often risk-averse and unwilling to provide funds for such development and transformation. For some time now, governments and non-governmental organisations have experimented with novel forms of financing for low-carbon developments and transformations - often referred to as ‘eco-financing’. This article studies six such governance instruments from Australia, the Netherlands and the United States to better understand their value and limits.

RegNet Research Paper No. 2016/112

Did Nonviolent Resistance Fail in Kosovo?

Aleksandar Marsavelski, University of Zagreb, Furtuna Sheremeti, KU Leuven and John Braithwaite, School of Regulation and Global Governance (RegNet), Australian National University

A standard narrative is that nonviolence failed in Kosovo: the Milosevic regime was ended by a NATO bombing campaign. This essay exposes errors in this narrative. Nonviolent resistance inside Kosovo succeeded in unifying the Kosovar masses against the Milosevic regime. That solidarity was crucial to victory. A distinctive innovation of Kosovo’s nonviolence was that it built solidarity by decisively reducing violence. In particular, it reduced murders in blood feuds. Kosovo emerged from war with a comparatively low rate of violence for a post-conflict, post-communist society with a large organized crime problem. We contrast Kosovo with post-conflict societies where more people are killed by criminal violence after their peace agreement than were killed in the war. Learning to reconcile blood feuds restoratively as part of Kosovo’s nonviolent campaign for freedom contributed to this accomplishment. Nonviolent resistance campaigns can be evaluated through a criminological lens whereby averting war is just one means to reducing death rates from intentional violence.

All previous papers published in the RegNet Research Paper Series are available for download on the RegNet SSRN page.

Cite the publication as

RegNet Research Paper Series Vol. 4, No. 4, 2016. School of Regulation and Global Governance (RegNet).

Updated:  10 August 2017/Responsible Officer:  Director, RegNet/Page Contact:  Director, RegNet