A study of 235 High Wealth Individuals (HWIs) and the entities they control was undertaken on 1997 and 1998 tax returns. From this data, and using a list of 207 candidate issues, five red flags for overall risk of aggressive tax planning by HWIs were identified. These red flags indicated recurrent risks that can be predicted using different kinds of analyses of overall high risk
Braithwaite, John, Yvonne Pittelkow and Robert Williams, 2003. ‘Tax compliance by the very wealthy: red flags of risk.’ In Taxing Democracy: Understanding Tax Avoidance and Evasion, edited by Valerie Braithwaite, 205-228. UK, Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.